Chemical engineers invent, develop, design, and operate processes and devices for bringing about chemical and physical changes in materials. Involved in all stages, they bring laboratory discoveries into new products and processes. Chemical engineers engage in fundamental research, development, economic and market analysis, design, construction, operations, supervision, sales, technical service, and management. Traditional industries such as petroleum refining and petrochemical production, plastics, synthetic fibers and textiles, pulp and paper, and pharmaceuticals employ many chemical engineers. The training of a B.S. chemical engineer provides a very broad background in chemistry, physics, mathematics, and their applications. This broad background enables chemical engineers to be employed in emerging technologies such as biochemical engineering and advanced materials.